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Spot welding principle, advantages and disadvantages

Nowadays, resistance welding is considered one of the trendy forms of
welding. It is obviously a process that welds two metals together using heat. In
this process, an overlap of metal is created at particular points or gaps, hence
the name spot welding. This is because this method makes a round welding
spot that is effective. What is the principle of this method? What are its
advantages and disadvantages?

The principle of spot welding

First of all, spot welding is considered as one of the welding methods that uses
the principle of resistance welding. This is obviously resistance welding with
electrodes that do not have fuses and in which a rise in temperature is carried
out to achieve the melting point of the metal. This is in addition to a high
mechanical pressure.

Indeed, the pieces of metal to be welded are compressed one against the other
thanks to two copper electrodes which do not have a fuse. Then, a high
intensity current passes through these two metals (it is obviously a few tens of
thousands of amperes).

Then, the electrical short circuit created at the point of contact of the two
metal pieces generates the fusion of the metal. This fusion takes place in 1 to 2
seconds when a few tenths of a second of electric current crosses the metal

Finally, it should be noted that the use of spot welding is most often found in
the assembly of sheets between them. For example, in the automotive
industry. The effective location of the welding point between the two
pressurized electrodes and the shortness of the process determine an effective
limitation of the deformation of the sheets during the welding process.

What are the advantages of spot welding?

Spot welding has many advantages that are very important in the daily life of
many companies.

The speed of spot welding

First, it should be noted that spot welding offers very fast results. This is due to
the extreme heat that electrons generate to bond two pieces of metal
together. This is done evenly and efficiently. Since the welding process is
extremely fast, you will not see any deformation in the two pieces of metal. As
a tangible example, you can take a look at body panels where spot welding is
typically applied.

The lower cost of spot welding

In general, spot welding helps to reduce production costs. This means that
when you spot weld, you will be able to benefit from a huge profitability. Being
very efficient, this method is most often used in assembly line production. In
addition, you have the option of integrating the use of robotics into the spot
welding process.

Considerable energy savings

Spot welding is a very economical process that contributes greatly to the saving
of electricity and energy. It is obviously a process that reveals its efficiency
when electricity and energy are used, unlike other types of welding.

A well understood process

At first glance, it should be noted that spot welding is considered one of the
oldest processes available. It is very well known by specialists. Since this
process is well defined, its application is very easy on thin metals such as nickel
alloys, stainless acid, as well as titanium. Its use is often seen in the large
automotive and aerospace industries.

What are the disadvantages of spot welding?

Although spot welding has many advantages, it is not spared from some
significant disadvantages.

Spot welding can be relatively low

Beforehand, it should be noted that the use of spot welding is absolutely not
possible on metal materials that are much thicker. Because it does not
penetrate the materials and does not form a good weld. Since it is weak, all
spot welding projects, as well as finished work, can be disassembled easily. Just
take a metal knife and cut the weld points and the work done will be undone in
minutes. This obviously leaves a disadvantage on the strength of the spot weld.

More space is essential

Spot welding necessarily needs a large space to get the job done properly. It is
absolutely difficult to complete in a small, confined space.

Spot welding can be ugly

In general, this is not attractive to the eye. However, this method is generally
used as an interior materials process. That’s why you won’t notice it on car
bodies. In addition, this process is used to put materials together temporarily
until the work is finished.

The danger of the process

Although the process seems simple, it should be noted that soldering guns are
very difficult to handle. Sometimes they are very heavy and often require a lot
of strength to get the job done. In addition, when welding, a large amount of
current and heat is released. This is obviously a great risk for the welder. Also,
the practitioners of this method are often surrounded by dangerous sparks,
accompanied by welding fumes. The welder who performs this operation is at
great risk. Fingers and hands can be crushed, as the welder is obviously
exposed to 2nd and 3rd degree burns. To top it off, the welder is at risk of eye
injury from the metal splatter that is generated by this welding method.

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